Protein World Pre Workout Blend Review
Pre workout blend is a product from UK based company Protein World. The product claims that it can boost performance during your workouts. This review will aim to examine the ingredients within this supplement to see if it can achieve these claims.
Leucine, Isoleucine and Valine are all Branched chain amino acids (BCAA’s). They are essential for protein synthesis which is stimulated after exhaustive exercise (1) as well as the critical metabolic process in muscle (2, 3). The metabolic roles of Leucine include energy production and the modulator of muscle protein synthesis via the insulin signalling pathway. There is a reason to suggest that it helps maintenance of muscle mass during weight loss (4). Leucine has also been shown to help in the direct maintenance of glucose homeostasis by improving the redistribution of glucose via the glucose – alanine cycle (5).
Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) has been shown to have weight loss properties (6); there are several reasons for this which includes an increase in energy metabolism (7), insulin resistance (8), stimulation of lipolysis, which is due to an impaired signalling which reduces triglyceride synthesis and releases free fatty acid which normally occurs when energy demand rises (9). Other mechanisms include a suppression of appetite (10), induced adipocyte apoptosis which decreases body fat mass and increased energy expenditure (11).
L-Carnitine is a dipeptide made from the essential amino acids lysine and methionine. L-Carnitine plays an important role in fat metabolism by allowing long chained fatty acids to pass through the mitochondrial membrane (12, 13).
Dextrose monohydrate is a fast absorbing carbohydrate that gives a quick release of energy. It is usually found in supplements as its properties mix very well with other substances.
Beta – Alanine is a non-essential amino acid. In a wide range of studies beta – alanine has been shown to have benefits to high intensity exercise (14). The reason behind this is that it has been found to increase muscle carnosine concentrations (15). Carnosine is key to the intracellular PH buffering of skeletal muscle (16). With an increase in clearance of H+ ions, it leads to high intensity exercise lasting for longer.
Citrulline malate is a combination of an amino acid (citrulline) and an organic salt (malate) which is a tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate. It’s noted effects include an increase in lactate metabolism and an antiasthenic effect (17). A major effect is an increase in aerobic capacity during exercise and greater recovery after exercise; this is due to the rate of muscle oxidative ATP production during exercise and the rate of PCr recovery after exercise (17).
L-tyrosine is an amino acid which has been found to help produce adrenaline (18) and dopamine (19).
Choline Bitartrate is choline combined with a chemical salt to help aid its absorption within the body. Choline is a water soluble nutrient that is naturally found within the body in small doses. The health benefits of choline are that it helps prevent fatty liver damage (20) as well as a lowering in cholesterol (21). It is used by athletes as it is believed to delay fatigue however some studies have shown this not to be the case (22).
Caffeine / Taurine
For many years caffeine has been widely used as an ergogenic aid. There have been many studies of caffeine’s effect of both the aerobic system, (23), and the anaerobic system, (24) on sporting performance. The suggested benefits of caffeine supplementation include the ability to attain greater use of fats as an energy source and sparing of muscle glycogen, (25). It has also been suggested that there is an increase of calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, which can create a greater muscle force production, (26). It has also been theorised that the effects of caffeine are probably exerted through effects upon the central nervous system or skeletal muscle by greater motor unit recruitment and alterations in neurotransmitter function (27).
Sucralose is a sweetener that is calorie free. This ingredient is used in many products and is used to make the product taste sweeter and does not have any nutritional benefit.
The ingredients within this supplement will achieve the claims that it will give a performance boost during workouts. The BCAA’s will help increase muscle strength. This product should be consumed pre workout. This product has no banned substances when referring to the WADA prohibited list when observing the label / ingredients posted on the website.
*NOTE – This product has not been tested in a laboratory and may contain other substances that may not appear on the label
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2 – Hutson, S. M., & Harris, R. A. (2001). Introduction. Symposium: Leucine as a nutritional signal. The Journal of nutrition, 131(3), 839S-840S.
3 – Layman, D. K. (2002). Role of leucine in protein metabolism during exercise and recovery. Canadian journal of applied physiology, 27(6), 646-662.
4 – Layman, D. K. (2003). The role of leucine in weight loss diets and glucose homeostasis. The Journal of nutrition, 133(1), 261S-267S.
5 – Herman, M. A., & Kahn, B. B. (2006). Glucose transport and sensing in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis and metabolic harmony. The Journal of clinical investigation, 116(7), 1767-1775.
6 – Blankson, H., Stakkestad, J. A., Fagertun, H., Thom, E., Wadstein, J., & Gudmundsen, O. (2000). Conjugated linoleic acid reduces body fat mass in overweight and obese humans. The Journal of nutrition, 130(12), 2943-2948.
7 – House, R. L., Cassady, J. P., Eisen, E. J., McIntosh, M. K., & Odle, J. (2005). Conjugated linoleic acid evokes de‐lipidation through the regulation of genes controlling lipid metabolism in adipose and liver tissue. obesity reviews, 6(3), 247-258.
8 – Chung, S., Brown, J. M., Provo, J. N., Hopkins, R., & McIntosh, M. K. (2005). Conjugated linoleic acid promotes human adipocyte insulin resistance through NFκB-dependent cytokine production. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 280(46), 38445-38456.
9 – Evans, M., Lin, X., Odle, J., & McIntosh, M. (2002). Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid increases fatty acid oxidation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The Journal of nutrition, 132(3), 450-455.
10 – Medina, E. A., Horn, W. F., Keim, N. L., Havel, P. J., Benito, P., Kelley, D. S., … & Erickson, K. L. (2000). Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation in humans: effects on circulating leptin concentrations and appetite. Lipids, 35(7), 783-788.
11 – Zambell, K. L., Keim, N. L., Van Loan, M. D., Gale, B., Benito, P., Kelley, D. S., & Nelson, G. J. (2000). Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation in humans: effects on body composition and energy expenditure. Lipids, 35(7), 777-782.
12 – Siliprandi, N., Sartorelli, L., Ciman, M., & Di Lisa, F. (1989). Carnitine: metabolism and clinical chemistry. Clinica Chimica Acta, 183(1), 3-11.
13 – Müller, D.M., Seim, H., Kiess, W., Löster, H. & Richter, T. (2002) Effects of Oral l-Carnitine Supplementation on In Vivo Long-Chain Fatty Acid Oxidation in Healthy Adults Metabolism, Volume 51, issue 11, (pp. 1389-1391)
14 – Baguet, A., Koppo, K., Pottier, A., & Derave, W. (2010). β-Alanine supplementation reduces acidosis but not oxygen uptake response during high-intensity cycling exercise. European journal of applied physiology, 108(3), 495-503.
15 – Sale, C., Saunders, B., & Harris, R. C. (2010). Effect of beta-alanine supplementation on muscle carnosine concentrations and exercise performance. Amino acids, 39(2), 321-333.
16 – Parkhouse, W. S., McKenzie, D. C., Hochachka, P. W., & Ovalle, W. K. (1985). Buffering capacity of deproteinized human vastus lateralis muscle. J Appl Physiol, 58(1), 14-7.
17 – Bendahan, D., Mattei, J. P., Ghattas, B., Confort-Gouny, S., Le Guern, M. E., & Cozzone, P. J. (2002). Citrulline/malate promotes aerobic energy production in human exercising muscle. British journal of sports medicine, 36(4), 282-289.
18 – Boylen, J. B., & Quastel, J. H. (1961). Effects of L-phenylalanine and sodium phenylpyruvate on the formation of adrenaline from L-tyrosine in adrenal medulla in vitro. Biochemical Journal, 80(3), 644.
19 – Mannironi, C. E. C. I. L. I. A., Scerch, C. H. I. A. R. A., Fruscoloni, P. A. O. L. O., & Tocchini-Valentini, G. P. (2000). Molecular recognition of amino acids by RNA aptamers: the evolution into an L-tyrosine binder of a dopamine-binding RNA motif. Rna, 6(4), 520-527.
20 – Lombardi, B., Pani, P., & Schlunk, F. F. (1968). Choline-deficiency fatty liver: impaired release of hepatic triglycerides. Journal of lipid research, 9(4), 437-446.
21 – De Miguel, I., Roueche, A., & Betbeder, D. (1999). Separation of dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline, cholesterol and their degradation products by high-performance liquid chromatography on a perfluorinated stationary bonded phase. Journal of Chromatography A, 840(1), 31-38.
22 – Spector, S. A., Jackman, M. R., Sabounjian, L. A., Sakkas, C. A. L. L. I., Landers, D. M., & Willis, W. T. (1995). Effect of choline supplementation on fatigue in trained cyclists. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 27(5), 668-673.
23 – Wiles, J. D, Bird, S. R, Hopkins, J. & Riley, M. (1992). Effect of caffeinated coffee on running speed, respiratory factors, blood lactate and perceived exertion during 1500-m treadmill running. British journal of sports medicine, 26 (11), 116-120.
24 – Kalmar, J. M & Cafarelli. E. (1998). Effects of caffeine on neuromuscular function. Journal of Applied Physiology, 87(2), 801-808.
25 – Costill, D. L., Dalasky, G. & Fink, W. (1978) Effects of caffeine ingestion on metabolism and exercise performance. Journal of Medicinal Science and sports exercise, 10 (3), 155–158.
26 – Tarnopolsky, M. A. (1994). Caffeine and endurance performance. Journal of Sports Medicine, 18(2), 109–125
27 – Bruce, C. R., Anderson, M. E. & Fraser, S. F. (2000). Enhancement of 2000-m rowing performance after caffeine ingestion. Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32 (11), 1958–1963.
|Use for||Muscle Gain|