High5 Energy Source 4:1 Review
Energy Source 4:1 is from British based company High5 Sports Nutrition. This supplement states that it can contribute to muscle maintenance and growth, helps maintain hydration during performance and is ideal for endurance performance. This review will aim to examine the ingredients within this supplement to understand how it can achieve this.
Maltodextrin is a polysaccharide which is a complex carbohydrate. This ingredient is water soluble and unlike other carbohydrates, is easily digestible (1) and can give a quick release of energy without any spikes of glycaemia (2).
Sucrose is a simple carbohydrate and is an intermediary in the metabolism of glucose (3). It has a low caloric value, low glycemic index (4) and gives a sweeter taste (5).
Whey Protein Isolate
Whey, soy and milk protein helps aid muscle protein synthesis when combined with resistance training (6,7). Other key features include increasing muscle mass (8), an increase in lean body mass (9) and greater recovery from exercise (10). Longer periods of supplementation have shown greater gains in fat free mass (11).
Muscle protein synthesis is increased due to high concentration of Leucine (BCAA) which is a signalling molecule needed to increase muscle protein synthesis (12). Consumption of whey protein helps increase muscle mass due to a greater amount of peripheral nitrogen retention whereas soy protein has been found to have a greater effect on splanchnic protein synthesis (13).
The reason for greater recovery of exercise can be due to a post exercise insulin response (14,15) which means glycogen resynthesis occurs rapidly so exercise can be prolonged, with greater training volume increased hypertrophy and decreased muscle damage.
Fructose is a simple carbohydrate and is an intermediary in the metabolism of glucose (16). It has a low caloric value, low glycemic index (17) and gives a sweeter taste (18).
Malic Acid is an organic compound that is naturally created within the body. The benefits of this ingredient have been suggested to include a lowering in blood pressure, helping against pre – exhaustion which will prolong exercise and reduce fatigue. There is a lack of research for this ingredient and more is needed to fully understand the benefits of this ingredients.
Tri sodium citrate
Sodium Citrate is the sodium salt of citric acid. The benefits of this ingredient that have been observed are mainly for short term high intensity exercise (19). During high intensity exercise performance is limited due to an increase of pH within the muscle and the bodies inability to counteract this from buffering systems (20). Sodium Citrate can help aid this by helping to neutralize and offset these hydrogen ions and decreasing the pH level, this means that the body can perform short term, high – intensity exercise for longer periods of time (21).
Potassium citrate is a form of potassium which has several function such as regulating water balance (22), central nervous system function (23) and helps convert glucose into glycogen which provides energy to the bodies muscles (24).
Sodium chloride is otherwise known as salt. It is theorised that sodium chloride can help prevent cramps as the key mechanism in muscle contraction is the flooding of the action potential in the muscle membrane, and so if there is a sodium deficiency it may cause the muscle to cramp (25).
SOYA Lecithin is an emulsifier which means that it helps aid the ingredients to disperse in water rather than separate into oily droplets and water.
The ingredients that are included into the Energy Source 4:1 supplement are able to achieve the claims that are made which includes maintaining hydration during exercise and helping to maintain and promote the growth of muscle. It is recommended that this sports drink is taken during and post-exercise. This product has no banned substances when referring to the WADA prohibited list when observing the label / ingredients posted on the website.
*NOTE – This product has not been tested in a laboratory and may contain other substances that may not appear on the label
1 – Haralampu, S. G. (2000). Resistant starch—a review of the physical properties and biological impact of RS< sub> 3</sub>. Carbohydrate polymers, 41(3), 285-292.
2 – Roberts, M., Lockwood, C., Dalbo, V. J., Tucker, P., Frye, A., Polk, R., … & Kerksick, C. (2009). Ingestion of a high molecular weight modified waxy maize starch alters metabolic responses to prolonged exercise in trained cyclists. In FASEB abstract.
3 – Racker, E. (2009). Alternate pathways of glucose and fructose metabolism.Advances in Enzymology and Related Areas of Molecular Biology, 15, 141.
4 – White, J. S. (2008). Straight talk about high-fructose corn syrup: what it is and what it ain’t. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 88(6), 1716S-1721S.
5 – Kyriazis, G. A., Soundarapandian, M. M., & Tyrberg, B. (2012). Sweet taste receptor signaling in beta cells mediates fructose-induced potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(8), E524-E532.
6 – Coker, R. H., Miller, S., Schutzler, S., Deutz, N., & Wolfe, R. R. (2012). Whey protein and essential amino acids promote the reduction of adipose tissue and increased muscle protein synthesis during caloric restriction-induced weight loss in elderly, obese individuals. Nutr J, 11(1), 105.
7 – Hulmi, J. J., Lockwood, C. M., & Stout, J. R. (2010). Review Effect of protein/essential amino acids and resistance training on skeletal muscle hypertrophy: A case for whey protein.
8 – Pasiakos, S. M., McLellan, T. M., & Lieberman, H. R. (2015). The effects of protein supplements on muscle mass, strength, and aerobic and anaerobic power in healthy adults: a systematic review. Sports Medicine, 45(1), 111-131.
9 – Volek, J. S., Volk, B. M., Gómez, A. L., Kunces, L. J., Kupchak, B. R., Freidenreich, D. J., … & Kraemer, W. J. (2013). Whey protein supplementation during resistance training augments lean body mass. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 32(2), 122-135.
10 – Hansen, M., Bangsbo, J., Jensen, J., Bibby, B. M., & Madsen, K. (2014). Effect of Whey Protein Hydrolysate on Performance and Recovery of Top-Class Orienteering Runners. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism.
11 – Hartman, J. W., Tang, J. E., Wilkinson, S. B., Tarnopolsky, M. A., Lawrence, R. L., Fullerton, A. V., & Phillips, S. M. (2007). Consumption of fat-free fluid milk after resistance exercise promotes greater lean mass accretion than does consumption of soy or carbohydrate in young, novice, male weightlifters. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 86(2), 373-381.
12- Atherton, P. J., Smith, K., Etheridge, T., Rankin, D., & Rennie, M. J. (2010). Distinct anabolic signalling responses to amino acids in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. Amino acids, 38(5), 1533-1539.
13 – Fouillet, H., Mariotti, F., Gaudichon, C., Bos, C., & Tomé, D. (2002). Peripheral and splanchnic metabolism of dietary nitrogen are differently affected by the protein source in humans as assessed by compartmental modeling. The Journal of nutrition, 132(1), 125-133.
14 – Hulmi, J. J., Volek, J. S., Selänne, H. A. R. R. I., & Mero, A. A. (2005). Protein ingestion prior to strength exercise affects blood hormones and metabolism. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 37(11), 1990-1997.
15 – Power, O., Hallihan, A., & Jakeman, P. (2009). Human insulinotropic response to oral ingestion of native and hydrolysed whey protein. Amino acids, 37(2), 333-339.
16 – Racker, E. (2009). Alternate pathways of glucose and fructose metabolism.Advances in Enzymology and Related Areas of Molecular Biology, 15, 141.
17 – White, J. S. (2008). Straight talk about high-fructose corn syrup: what it is and what it ain’t. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 88(6), 1716S-1721S.
18 – Kyriazis, G. A., Soundarapandian, M. M., & Tyrberg, B. (2012). Sweet taste receptor signaling in beta cells mediates fructose-induced potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(8), E524-E532.
19 – Parry-Billings, M., & MacLaren, D. P. M. (1986). The effect of sodium bicarbonate and sodium citrate ingestion on anaerobic power during intermittent exercise. European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology,55(5), 524-529.
20 – Oöpik, V., Saaremets, I., Medijainen, L., Karelson, K., Janson, T., & Timpmann, S. (2003). Effects of sodium citrate ingestion before exercise on endurance performance in well trained college runners. British journal of sports medicine, 37(6), 485-489.
21 – McNaughton, L., Backx, K., Palmer, G., & Strange, N. (1999). Effects of chronic bicarbonate ingestion on the performance of high-intensity work.European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology, 80(4), 333-336.
22 – Lemann Jr, J., Pleuss, J. A., Gray, R. W., & Hoffmann, R. G. (1991). Potassium administration increases and potassium deprivation reduces urinary calcium excretion in healthy adults. Kidney Int, 39(5), 973-983.
23 – Goto, A. T. S. U. O., Tobian, L., & Iwai, J. (1981). Potassium feeding reduces hyperactive central nervous system pressor responses in Dahl salt-sensitive rats. Hypertension, 3(3 Pt 2), I128.
24 – Brady, R. O., Mamoon, A. M., & Stadtman, E. R. (1956). The effects of citrate and coenzyme A on fatty acid metabolism. Journal of Biological Chemistry,222(2), 795-802.
25 – McCance, R. A. (1936). Experimental sodium chloride deficiency in man.Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences,119(814), 245-268.
|Use for||Muscle Gain / Endurance|
|Price||£16.99 – 35.99|