Applied Nutrition ZMA 24 hour (Day) Review
ZMA 24 Hour is a product from UK based company Applied Nutrition. This product states that it can contribute to normal testosterone levels and the immune system. This review will aim to examine the ingredients in this product to see if it can support the claims made.
Magnesium has been found to be used for 300 biochemical reactions in the body (1). It has been found to maintain muscle function (2), support a healthy immune system (3), keep the heart beat steady (4), and help strengthen bones (5). It has also been found to maintain blood glucose levels (6) and aid in the production of energy and protein.
For many years caffeine has been a widely used as an ergogenic aid. There have been many studies of caffeine’s effect of both the aerobic system, (7), and the anaerobic system, (8) on sporting performance. The suggested benefits of caffeine supplementation include the ability to attain greater use of fats as an energy source and sparing of muscle glycogen, (9). It has also been suggested that there is an increase of calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, which can create a greater muscle force production, (10). It has also been theorised that the effects of caffeine are probably exerted through effects upon the central nervous system or skeletal muscle by greater motor unit recruitment and alterations in neurotransmitter function (11).
Zinc is an inorganic compound. It has been identified as a factor for many enzymes responsible for the synthesis, storage and release of insulin (12), with increases in lean body mass while fat mass either remains stable or decreases, depending on the degree of baseline zinc deficiency (13). With this evidence is has been shown that this ingredient is important for the growth and development of body tissues as well as this a variety of biological processes including wound healing and muscle cramps (14) have been found.
The active form of vitamin B6 is known as P-L-P (15), which is stimulated by exercise (16). During exercise the body relies on the liver to produce glucose via glycogenolysis, for which vitamin b6 is essential for, and is an integral part of the glycogen phosphorylase enzyme and thus will provide energy to the bodies’ muscles (17).
Gelatine is a protein which is made from amino acids glycine and proline. The suggested benefits of gelatin have been to boost metabolism and increase satiety, however there is insufficient evidence to reinforce these claims.
Micro Crystalline Cellulose is a non-active ingredient which is made up of refined wood pulp. This substance does not degrade during digestion and is preferable in tablets due to it being able to form hard but dissolve quickly.
Magnesium stearate does not induce any nutritional benefits. The main reason for this substance being in the supplement is that it is a lubricant for the machinery that manufactures the product.
Titanium dioxide does not provide any nutritional benefits and is used as a whitening agent and a thickener in supplements.
It is hard to understand what ingredients this product contains that can truly help with the immune system and testosterone levels. This product contains ingredients that can help with energy levels as it contains caffeine. This product should be consumed pre workout. This product has no banned substances when referring to the WADA prohibited list when observing the label / ingredients posted on the website.
*NOTE – This product has not been tested in a laboratory and may contain other substances that may not appear on the label
1 – Ryan, M. F. (1991). The role of magnesium in clinical biochemistry: an overview.Annals of Clinical Biochemistry: An international journal of biochemistry in medicine, 28(1), 19-26.
2 – Dørup, I., Skajaa, K., Clausen, T., & Kjeldsen, K. (1988). Reduced concentrations of potassium, magnesium, and sodium-potassium pumps in human skeletal muscle during treatment with diuretics. British medical journal (Clinical research ed.), 296(6620), 455.
3 – Tam, M., Gomez, S., Gonzalez-Gross, M., & Marcos, A. (2003). Possible roles of magnesium on the immune system. European journal of clinical nutrition,57(10), 1193-1197.
4 – White, R. E., & Hartzell, H. C. (1989). Magnesium ions in cardiac function: regulator of ion channels and second messengers. Biochemical pharmacology,38(6), 859-867.
5 – Okuma, T. (2001). Magnesium and bone strength. Nutrition, 17(7), 679-680.
6 – Paolisso, G., Scheen, A., d’Onofrio, F., & Lefèbvre, P. (1990). Magnesium and glucose homeostasis. Diabetologia, 33(9), 511-514.
7 – Wiles, J. D, Bird, S. R, Hopkins, J. & Riley, M. (1992). Effect of caffeinated coffee on running speed, respiratory factors, blood lactate and perceived exertion during 1500-m treadmill running. British journal of sports medicine, 26 (11), 116-120.
8 – Kalmar, J. M & Cafarelli. E. (1998). Effects of caffeine on neuromuscular function. Journal of Applied Physiology, 87(2), 801-808.
9 – Costill, D. L., Dalasky, G. & Fink, W. (1978) Effects of caffeine ingestion on metabolism and exercise performance. Journal of Medicinal Science and sports exercise, 10 (3), 155–158.
10 – Tarnopolsky, M. A. (1994). Caffeine and endurance performance. Journal of Sports Medicine, 18(2), 109–125
11 – Bruce, C. R., Anderson, M. E. & Fraser, S. F. (2000). Enhancement of 2000-m rowing performance after caffeine ingestion. Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32 (11), 1958–1963.
12 – Hashemipour, M., Kelishadi, R., Shapouri, J., Sarrafzadegan, N., Amini, M., Tavakoli, N., … & Poursafa, P. (2009). Effect of zinc supplementation on insulin resistance and components of the metabolic syndrome in prepubertal obese children. Hormones (Athens), 8(4), 279-285.
13 – Prasad, A. S. (1991). Discovery of human zinc deficiency and studies in an experimental human model. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 53(2), 403-412.
14 – Kugelmas, M. (2000). Preliminary observation: oral zinc sulfate replacement is effective in treating muscle cramps in cirrhotic patients. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 19(1), 13-15.
15 – Ubbink, J. B., Vermaak, W. J., van der Merwe, A., & Becker, P. J. (1993). Vitamin B-12, vitamin B-6, and folate nutritional status in men with hyperhomocysteinemia. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 57(1), 47-53.
16 – Manore, M. M. (2000). Effect of physical activity on thiamine, riboflavin, and vitamin B-6 requirements. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 72(2), 598s-606s.
17 – Manore, M. N., Leklem, J. E., & Walter, M. C. (1987). Vitamin B-6 metabolism as affected by exercise in trained and untrained women fed diets differing in carbohydrate and vitamin B-6 content. The American journal of clinical nutrition,46(6), 995-1004.
|Use for||Immune System|