Vitamin D


Vitamin D has several health benefits, firstly it helps increase bone health by allowing an increase of calcium absorption (1), secondly it can regulate immune function (2) and modulate inflammatory response (3). Vitamin D has also been found to be key to optimal muscle function (4). The importance of Vitamin D in athletes whether professional or amateur has been noted as being vital for performance (5).


1 – Holick, M. F. (2007). Vitamin D deficiency. New England Journal of Medicine,357(3), 266-281.

2 – Gombart, A. F., Borregaard, N., & Koeffler, H. P. (2005). Human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) gene is a direct target of the vitamin D receptor and is strongly up-regulated in myeloid cells by 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. The FASEB Journal, 19(9), 1067-1077.

3 – Zittermann, A. (2003). Vitamin D in preventive medicine: are we ignoring the evidence?. British Journal of Nutrition, 89(05), 552-572.

4 – Hamilton, B. (2010). Vitamin D and human skeletal muscle. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports, 20(2), 182-190.

5 – Larson-Meyer, D. E., & Willis, K. S. (2010). Vitamin D and athletes. Current sports medicine reports, 9(4), 220-226.