Creatine Monohydrate


Creatine monohydrate, (CM) is defined as a nitrogenous organic acid that occurs naturally in humans and aids in the supply of energy to cells in the body, (69). The majority of CM, 95%, can be located in the skeletal muscle with the rest distributed to the brain, heart and smooth muscles.

Creatine has been found to increase the replenishment of ATP stores in the skeletal muscles (70). It is attributed to a greater rate of phosphocreatine resynthesis during the rest periods. Higher sprint speeds reported (71). There have been numerous theories proposed as to why creatine is a benefit to short term high intensity exercise (72). One theory is that the increased amount of phosphocreatine, (PCr), can be used as an immediate buffer to ATP which reduces the dependence of glycolysis which delays the production of lactate and hydrogen ions during exercise thus prolonging the activity by delaying the onset of fatigue, (73).


69 – Balsom, P. D., Soderlund, K., & Ekblom, B. (1994). Creatine in humans with special reference to creatine supplementation. Sports Medicine. 18(4), 260 – 280.

70 – Greenhaff, P.L., Bodin, K., Soderlund, K., Hultrnan, E. (1994). The influence  of  oral  creatine supplementation  on  muscle phosphocreatine  resynthesis  following  intense  contraction in man. American Journal of Physiology, 266(5), 725-730.

71 – Jones, A. M., Atter, T., & Georg, K. P. (1999). Oral creatine supplementation improves multiple sprint performance in elite ice-hockey players. Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness, 39, 189-196.

72 – Hultman, E., Soderland, K., Timmons, J. A., Cederblad, G. & Greenhaff, P. L. (1996). Muscle creatine loading in men. Journal of Apllied Physiology. 81(1), 232-237.

73 – Casey, A., Constantin – Teodosiu, D., Howell, S., Hultman, E., & Greenhaff, P. L,. (1996). Creatine ingestion favourably affects performance and muscle metabolism during maximal exercise in humans. American Journal of Physiology. 271(1), 31-37.